波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那因晶莹剔透的水而闻名,清澈见底的水和沁人心脾的空气为工作和休闲提供了极佳的条件。

Bosnia and Herzegovina is famous for its crystal-clear water and clean and fresh air perfect for work and leisure.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那的桥梁不仅连接了河的两岸,而且是不同文明和文化之间交流的纽带。

The wonderful bridges that span the rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina truly bridge many civilizations and cultures that call their homeland Bosnia and Herzegovina.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那的水清澈见底,波光粼粼,使的独木舟和皮划艇在这里很是盛行。

Canoeing and kayaking are popular throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina with its pure and crystal-clear waters.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那鱼资源丰富,其淡水资源富含鲑鱼、鲤鱼、鳗鱼和鲈鱼。

Fish are abundant in Bosnia and Herzegovina where most of the freshwaters are rich in trout, carp, eel and bass.

想要逃离大都市的喧嚣吗,波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那别具情调的民俗村便是这样的圣殿。

Ethno villages of Bosnia and Herzegovina are unique sanctuaries where you may escape from the urban fuss and mess.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那学术历史非常悠久。

Bosnia and Herzegovina has a long tradition of academic life.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那手工艺品世界闻名,多样化的传统图案是其受多元文化影响的见证。

Bosnia and Herzegovina is well-known by its handicrafts and traditional patterns showing the diversity of cultural influences.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那自然资源丰富,这里有大片的耕地、广袤的森林和巨大的水能。

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a country rich in natural resources, covered with large areas of farming land, extensive woods, and water potential.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那的冬银装素裹且阳光明媚,是冬季爱好者的好去处。

Winter lovers may find Bosnia and Herzegovina as a country with a lot of snow but sunshine.

融合了东西方优点的美食无疑是人民爱上波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那的原因之一。

Cuisine which is a blend of east and west is definitely one of the main reasons why people love Bosnia and Herzegovina.

很多宗教和文化建筑矗立在波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那市中心。

Bosnia and Herzegovina has a plenty of religious and cultural edifices placed in the urban city centers.

美妙绝伦的东方艺术和文化极大地丰富了波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那,尤其是在建筑和都市生活方面。

Bosnia and Herzegovina was enriched by wonderful Oriental art and culture, particularly in housing and urban living.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那拥有众多独一无二的历史文物。

Bosnia and Herzegovina has many unique historical relics.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那以音乐天才和休闲娱乐的摇篮而著称。

Bosnia and Herzegovina is known as a cradle of great music talents and good entertainment.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那的冬,山上白雪皑皑,积雪覆盖,为冬季旅游创造了极好的天气条件。

In the winter, quality and continuous snow in the mountains of Bosnia and Herzegovina constitutes suitable climatic conditions for winter tourism.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那用于作物栽培和畜牧养殖业的农业用地多达200万公顷以上。

There are over 2 million hectares of agricultural land, both for crop growing and livestock rearing.

对于那些真正的自然爱好者来说,波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那繁忙大都市之外的众多绿洲是他们的首选之地。

For true nature lovers there are many green oases out of the big cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那动物物种品类繁多。

Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to a great number of animal species.

由于受地中海阳光的庇佑,波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那享誉盛名的葡萄酒已因其高品质和高品位获奖多次。

Thanks to the Mediterranean sun, the well reputed wines of Bosnia and Herzegovina have been awarded many times for its good quality and taste.

对于探险爱好者和自然爱好者来说,波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那是一个拥有原始荒野的仙境。

For the adventure seekers and nature lovers Bosnia and Herzegovina is a wonderland of pristine wilderness.

走进波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那,您就会发现东西方的融合在这里达到了极致,让您跨越文化和历史的界限去刷新生命的体验。

In Bosnia and Herzegovina you will find an amazing blend of east and west, allowing you to cross cultural and historical bridges you never thought possible.

走进波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那, 您将发现新旧交替、传统与现代融合的城市规划。

In Bosnia and Herzegovina you may find a mixture of the old and new, traditional and modern city planning.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那所有大都市的旧城区风韵犹存。

Old towns keep their ancient spirit in almost all big cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那丰富的传统技艺无与伦比,为其留下了许多独一无二、别具特色的文化遗产。

The incomparable richness of traditional craftsmanship produced a unique mixture of various influences in the cultural heritage of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

就地热资源及其发展潜能来说,波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那已跻身欧洲前10名。

Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks in the top 10 in Europe in terms of geothermal resources and potential.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那因拥有众多保存完好、原始自然美景的国家和自然公园而倍感自豪。

Bosnia and Herzegovina has many national and natural parks which are well preserved and untouched natural beauties.

地处不同文明和文化的交接点,从宗教旅游角度来说,宗教元素在波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那起着重要的作用。

Located at the meeting point of different civilizations and cultures, the religious elements in Bosnia and Herzegovina have an important role in terms of religious tourism.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那因其古老的宗教建筑而闻名,这些建筑对公众开放。

Bosnia and Herzegovina is known by its very old religious edifices open to visitors with all preferences.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那因其国际化的艺术和文化盛事而深感自豪。

Bosnia and Herzegovina is very proud by its international art and cultural festivals.

不同社区、生活方式和传统的和平共处恰到好处地定义了波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那文化和历史的特色。

The feature that most defines the culture and history of Bosnia and Herzegovina is precisely the peaceful co-existence of different communities, lifestyles and traditions.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那现代基础设施发展潜力巨大。

Bosnia and Herzegovina has a great potential for modern infrastructure.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那的劳动力勤劳肯干,技艺高超且求知欲望强烈。

Bosnia and Herzegovina has a hardworking highly skillful labor force with desire to learn.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那拥有丰富的自然水资源与肥沃的土地。

Natural water resources and fertile soils are abundant in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那的急流漂流探险已广为人知。

Bosnia and Herzegovina is well known for its wild-water rafting adventures.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那的历史打上了地中海、罗马、奥特曼和欧洲等不同文化的烙印,因此她是新旧世界融合交汇的圣地。

Bosnia and Herzegovina which had hosted different cultures like the Mediterranean, Roman, Ottoman and European throughout history is a mixture of the old and the new World.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那是一个多山的国家,第拿里阿尔皮斯山脉贯穿全境。

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a mostly mountainous country with the Dinaric Alps dominating the landscape.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那悠久的历史为其留下了不少文化-历史遗产,古老的要塞和城堡就是其最好的印证。

Rich history of Bosnia and Herzegovina has left its trails and monuments of cultural-historical heritage as fortresses and towers.

身处波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那,您可以拜访古老悠久的住宅,去感受往日社会生活的真谛。

In Bosnia and Herzegovina you may visit the old traditional residences to feel the spirit of social life during the past centuries.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那南部遍布独特地中海风格的建筑。

Bosnia and Herzegovina has a peculiar Mediterranean style of houses typical for the southern regions.

对于持有不同世界观的人来说,波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那都是他们朝拜的圣地。

Bosnia and Herzegovina offers a chance to visit various religious monuments with holy values for people with different worldviews.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那已被鉴定出的有花植物多达3000种以上。

There are more than three thousand identified species of flowering plants in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那建筑风格为许多欧洲著名风格所影响。

Architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina was influenced by many European prominent styles.

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那温泉旅游潜力巨大。

Bosnia and Herzegovina has a huge potential for spa tourism.

踏进波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那的深山地区,您就会发现那里空气异常清新,人民过着悠闲自得的生活。

Deep in the mountains of Bosnia and Herzegovina you may find the rural communities enjoying the life in pure and fresh air environment.

Country Profile

Introduction

Geography

Natural Resources

Flora and Fauna

Transport Infrastructure

Population

Organization of the State

Organization of the Government



Introduction

Bosnia and Herzegovina is the heart-shaped country located in the South-East Europe. The name Bosnia dates back to the Roman times. There is common belief that Bosna, from bosana, meaning running water, was name after its abundant freshwater rivers, streams and springs. Herzegovina was named after the last Duke of Hum, Herceg Stjepan, who was the last ruler from the Bosnian aristocratic Kosaca family before the Ottomans invaded. Herzegovina literally means of the Duke’s or belonging to the Duke. 

It is a country with rich cultural and political history that is interwoven with periods of its independence and being a part of the great empires. Bosnia and Herzegovina has long history of its statehood. Kingdom of Bosnia was established in 9th century and lasted until mid of the 15th century when Ottoman Empire has occupied it. During that time Bosnia preserved its administrative identity. At the end of 19th century Austro-Hungarian Empire has overtaken our country from Ottomans. After World War I, Bosnia and Herzegovina became a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes with its territorial integrity.

In year 1929 the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes evolved in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. During the World War II, multiethnic resistance movement led by the Communist Party has liberated our country from occupiers and re-confirmed statehood of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia and Herzegovina was one of the six republics constituting the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Bosnia and Herzegovina declared its independence again in 1992. Sarajevo is the capital and the largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is surrounded by the Olympic Mountains since Sarajevo hosted the XIV Winter Olympic games in 1984.

 

Geography

Bosnia and Herzegovina is located at the Western part of Balkan Peninsula and covers the area of 52 280 km² with coastline of 21.2 km. In the North, West and South-west Bosnia and Herzegovina borders with Republic Croatia, in the East with Republic Serbia, and in the South-east with Republic Montenegro.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a mostly mountainous country with the Dinaric Alps dominating the landscape. The highest point, Maglic Mountain, rises to 2,387m. Thick forests cover almost 50% of the land. In the North, along the Sava River valley, a hilly, fertile plain stretches east to west. The country has 21,2 km of coastline in the Southwest of the country, providing access to the Adriatic Sea in Neum Town.

A number of factors influence the climate of Bosnia and Herzegovina: its geographic position, its relief, which is predominantly mountainous, the proximity of the warm Mediterranean Sea, and the continental landmasses, mainly the Euro-Asian landmass.

This transitional region where Mediterranean and alpine influences meet creates a mosaic of climate types within relatively small area of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Mediterranean (maritime) climate prevails in the Southeast, continental mountain (the Alps) climate in the central part, and moderate continental (central European) climate in the North. Winters can be very cold with a lot of snow, especially in the hills and mountains. Summers are generally warm and comfortable, occasionally hot.

Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of four large geographic regions. Central Bosnia (12,920 km², 1,249,000 residents) stretches over the central Bosnian territory. It is the most developed region of the country, having been the crossroad and summing junction of differing influences and interests of neighboring Peripannonic, karstic and sub-Mediterranean areas, since ancient times.

The High Karst of Bosnia and Herzegovina (11,842 km², 325,000 residents) covers mountainous karstic territory of western Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the scarcest populated and poorest area of the country with only 9% of arable land and less than 30% of population. The Mediterranean region, so-called Lowland Herzegovina (5,399 km², 296,000 residents), is the smallest geographic entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina and it covers the tramontane region of the central littoral area.

 

Natural Resources

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a country rich in natural resources, covered with large areas of farming land, extensive woods, and water potential. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a diversity of mineral resources which include: magnesium, iron ore, lead, copper, chrome, carbon, coal, bauxite, manganese, zinc, salt, clay, forests and hydro power.

Preliminary studies have confirmed that Bosnia and Herzegovina has respectable oil sites. Possible locations and the economic justification of exploitation are currently being investigated. Exploitation is projected to be in 2014-15.

There are over 2 million hectares of agricultural land, both for crop growing and livestock rearing. Much of the land is free from chemical fertilizers and the routine use of pesticides.

Forests and forest lands in Bosnia and Herzegovina spread over an area of about 2.7 million hectares, accounting for 53% of the land area in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Natural water resources are abundant and ground water is accessible in many places. About 76% of Bosnia and Herzegovina territory drain via the Sava River to the Black Sea, and 24% drain via the River Neretva to the Adriatic Sea.

 

Flora and Fauna

Two large floral regions intersect ─ Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean, have created such a diverse bio system that well, over half the total number of flowering plants on the Balkan Peninsula can be found here. There are over 3,700 identified species of flowering plants in Bosnia and Herzegovina and hundreds of endemic species. Medicinal herbs have long been used here to cure illness, heal wounds, and improve circulation or to spice-up a home-cooked meal.

One of the greatest natural gifts to Bosnia and Herzegovina is the marvelous forests that cover slightly less than half of the country. Bosnia and Herzegovina countryside and mountainsides are home to thick forests of beech, oak, chestnut, spruce and other types of trees.

The current status of the wildlife is largely unknown in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was once home to one of the largest bear populations in the world and had thriving wolf, deer, wild boar and chamois (wild goat) communities. While the bear and the wild boat are both now endangered species in Bosnia and Herzegovina wild boar has made a tremendous comeback. In Bosnia and Herzegovina hunting is regulated by law but in practice there is little or no enforcement.

Fish are abundant in Bosnia and Herzegovina where most of the freshwaters are rich in trout, carp, eel and bass. The high mountains have always been home to eagles, hawks and falcons. Wetland in Southern Herzegovina is home to 240 types of birds like Heron, Greek partridge, coot, owl, pheasant and wild duck, but in other untouched and wild territory is expected to see foxes, otters, pine martens, bobcats, deer, porcupines and many other types of snakes.

 

Transport Infrastructure

Bosnia and Herzegovina has one international airport Sarajevo and local airports in Banja Luka, Tuzla and Mostar.The road network of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of approximately 22,600 km, with 3,788 km of main roads and 4,842 km of regional roads. A large scale development programs comprise reconstruction of approximately 850 km of main roads, as well as construction of the new motorways. The main regional project is Corridor Vc going from Budapest (Hungary), via Republic Croatia, Sarajevo to the Port Ploče (Republic Croatia).

The railway infrastructure of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 1,042 km of track, most of which is electrified. Main railway network encompasses the North-South route (Pan European Corridor 5) and the East-West route.

Considerable modernization and reconstruction project of complete railway system of Bosnia and Herzegovina has been foreseen by development programs.

The Sava River, a tributary of the Danube River is the only navigable waterway, and runs for 333 km along the border with Republic Croatia and the border with Republic Serbia.

 

Population

According to the last census done in 1991, Bosnia and Herzegovina had a population of 4,377,033. Ethnically, 1,902,956 (43.47%) are Bosniaks, 1,366,104 (31.21%) Serbs, and 760,852 (17.38%) Croats, with 242,682 (5.54%) Yugoslavs and 104,439 (2.38%) others.

The capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina is Sarajevo with population of around 500.000. Other big cities are: Banja Luka, Mostar, Zenica, Tuzla, Bihac, Brcko, Doboj, Trebinje. Official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina are Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian. Also, two scripts are used, Latin and Cyrillic. Main religions are Islam, Orthodox and Roman Catholic Christianity, as well as others (Census 1991). There is a strong correlation between ethnic identity and religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Despite the most difficult moments of existence, Bosnia and Herzegovina has survived for centuries as a multi-cultural, multi-national and multi-confessional community.

 

Organization of the State

Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the Annex IV of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (most commonly referred to as the Dayton Peace Accords), signed in Paris on 14 December 1995, previously initiated in Dayton, Ohio (USA) on 21 November 1995.

Bosnia and Herzegovina has continued legal existence of the “Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina” under international law as a state, with its internal structure modified as provided in the General Framework Agreement for Peace and with its present internationally recognized borders.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a democratic state that operates under the rule of law and with free and democratic elections. Bosnia and Herzegovina has several levels of political structuring. The first one is a state level. Further, Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of the two Entities (the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Srpska) and Brcko District.

Institutions of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina are responsible for the following: foreign policy; foreign trade policy; customs policy; monetary policy; finances of the institutions and for international obligations of Bosnia and Herzegovina; fiscal policy; defense policy; immigration, refugee, and asylum policy and regulation; international and inter-Entity criminal law enforcement, including relations with Interpol; establishment and operation of common and international communications facilities; regulation of inter-Entity transportation and air traffic control. All governmental functions and powers not expressly assigned to the institutions of Bosnia and Herzegovina are those of the Entities. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina covers some 51% of Bosnia and Herzegovina's total area, while Republic of Srpska covers around 49%. Brcko District functions under a decentralized system of local government. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is composed of 10 cantons. All of them have their own cantonal government and other relevant institutions. The fourth level of political structuring in Bosnia and Herzegovina is the municipalities. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is composed of 74 municipalities and Republic of Srpska in 63. Municipalities are typically based around the most significant city or place in their territory and also have their own local government.

 

Organization of the Government

Bicameral Parliamentary Assembly is the state lawmaking body in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It consists of two houses: the House of Representatives and House of Peoples. The House of Representatives is composed of 42 Members, two-thirds elected from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and one-third elected from Republic of Srpska. The House of Peoples includes 15 delegates, two-thirds of which come from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (5 Croats and 5 Bosniaks) and one-third from Republic of Srpska (5 Serbs).

The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the supreme, final arbiter of legal matters. It is composed of nine members: four members are selected by the Parliament of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, two by the Parliament of Republic of Srpska, and three by the President of the European Court of Human Rights after consultation with the Presidency. Decisions of the Constitutional Court are final and binding.

The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina has three members. One of them acts as the Chairman of the Presidency and other two as Members of the Presidency. Chairmanship rotates among three members (Bosniak, Croat, Serb), each being the Chairman for an eight-month term within their four-year term. Three members of the Presidency are elected directly by the people (Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina votes for the Bosniak/Croat, Republic of Srpska for the Serb).

The Chair of the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina is nominated by the Presidency and approved by the House of Representatives of the Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina. He heads the Council of Ministers composed of the following ministers:

-  Minister of Security,
-  Minister of Treasury and Finances,
-  Minister of Foreign Affairs,
-  Minister of Civil Affairs,
-  Minister of Communications and Transport,
-  Minister of Defense,
-  Minister of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations,
-  Minister for Human Rights and Refugees,
-  Minister of Justice.

 

Directorate for European Integration is acting as a permanent body of the Council of Ministers in charge of coordination of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s integration into the European Union.

In accordance with the Annex X of the Dayton Peace Accords, the peace implementation is supervised by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina selected by the Peace Implementation Council. The Annex X of the Dayton Peace Accords gives to the High Representative specific governmental and legislative powers.

 

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